J Dev Stud 35(1):1–38. Availability of Land: apart from human capital , availability of land is also fundamental in rural livelihoods (Barbier and Hochard 2014 ) . 2003; Nasir 2013; Swope 2007). This may also be used as a survey to establish if a company may have rural branches. During the Christmas games at Purosa village in Eastern Highlands Province, there was an incident were one of the rugby league players was hit on the head with an iron rod. Lack of safe water is a major problem after occurrence of a natural disaster . fifty percent of the population below the poverty line is common and figures for the year 2000 were as high as 80 percent for some cities. Part of Springer Nature. Small-scale farming, fishing, raising livestock and non-farm activities are some of the common livelihoods that these populations survive on. Bull World Health Organ 84(8):677–681. There is a common pattern in most developing countries where the very poor and those who are relatively well-off tend to have a more diverse livelihood than the middle range income earners (Ellis 1996). Key Words: Livelihood diversification, simpson index, rural Bangladesh INTRODUCTION Bangladesh is an agrarian economy with 54% of its total agriculture in rural livelihoods is also falling over time. However, ability to raise collateral and to pay back the loan is critical in fuelling diversification; otherwise poverty levels have increased with resultant loss of assets for non-payment of loans. Based on empirical research conducted in Cameroon, Ghana and Tanzania, the study shows that improved connectivity is a major driver of rural livelihood Education exposes an individual to new dimensions including reading and writing that are required to improve and attain skills . This study uses the sustainable livelihood approach to examine the extent to which the access to various capital influence a household's livelihood transition from farming to non-farm activities also called farm exit in a poor rural agricultural setting of Nepal. 3 Population increases in less developed countries are also adding significantly to the proportion of the urban population that is living below the poverty level. Population Focused Community Health Nursing 1. After a natural disaster people move to camps or other areas of safety, which in most occasions are very crowded. SpringerPlus 4(1):122. Availability of new markets encourages communities to diversify as they try to exploit the new opportunities. This is very common in developing countries where there is lack of rapid response and availability of aid to the victims. A poor asset base limits a household’s ability to diversify and/or acquire loans or credit. Any change in their living conditions and/or their surroundings could result in elimination of a certain disease and/or introduction of another. The review was made on determinants and challenges of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia. Int Lett Od Soc Humanistic Justice 21:84–90. The main concern of RLDP is the high rural poverty in the Central Corridor of Tanzania, which is Key words: Determinants, diversification, livelihood, rural, strategies. 2009). Yet livelihoods are always dynamic, involving transitions between different strategies (Ellis, 2000). | It describes the role of small and intermediate urban centres in facilitating exchange between the towns and the countryside. In a household dependency ratio measures the ability of the household to sustain and meet their needs. Examples of physical capital include equipment such as a tractor on a farm, a sewing machine for a tailor, buildings and computers. Davis B, Winters P, Carletto G, Covarrubias K, Quiñones EJ, Zezza A, DiGiuseppe S (2010a) A cross-country comparison of rural income generating activities. The link between health, poverty and livelihoods is critical when analysing the importance of microfinance. In terms of living in an urban or rural setting the potential residents must compare and contrast four basic items: education, health, jobs and stress. Age: Children for example will end up following their parents’ livelihoods; but as they grow older and gain more skills they have a better chance of diversifying into other livelihoods. | Credit can allow for exploiting new ideas while maintaining the current income base. For the successful ones, members of the groups are able to finance their businesses, support their households and are able to diversify their livelihoods because they have a financial security through the cooperative (Gibbs et al. We call a “livelihood group” a group of people who access similar resources, share similar social and cultural values and have a comparable economic status. livelihood diversification and mobility in livelihood transformation processes in dynamic rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Natural disasters can lead to poverty due to loss of income and income generating resources. The SL framework is applicable to both rural and urban survival strategies. As a result the poor make very little income, which results in failure to create opportunities that could earn them more money, and they are denied opportunities to improve their status—an example of low human capital (Ellis 1996). Owing to low human capital, the rural poor tend to diversify in less profitable labour markets than their wealthier counterparts. • There are some organizations like HUL, ITC, LG, Mahindra etc. • FMCG & consumer durable companies, which are basically “volume targeters” need to find new market regions and/or segments to sustain their topline & bottom-line. Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. Rural Community Health versus Urban City Health Seiber EE, Robinson AL (2007) Microfinance investments in quality at private clinics in Uganda: a case-control study. SOLOTAXONOMY Approach There are also skills that can be attained by passing them on from one generation to the other, these are also called talents. Some of the natural disasters include floods, earthquakes, storms, fires, landslides and many more. The paper then outlines some of the benefits of re-casting the rural resource as ‘countryside capital’, | It outlines the purpose of the guide as a framework for studying market linkages. The sustainable livelihood approach offers a holistic and integrative approach with the capacity to analyse and understand the complexity of rural development (Chambers and Conway 1991; Solesbury 2003). This paper focuses on the case of rural tourism in illustrating the Physical capital allows for work to be accomplished faster as well as for diversification. Introduction Objectives of the study Methodology of the study Theoretical discussion Concept of NGOs Historical background of NOGs in Bangladesh Types of NGOs Functional coverage of NGOs Role of NGOs behind the rural development Advantages and disadvantages Findings Jagorani chakra foundation (JCF) Objectives Working area Programs Programs related rural development Exceptional and successes of JCF Achievements of JCF Concluding remark Increased migration; this has also resulted in development of squatter homes with poor sanitation. 10. In most region of sub-Saharan Africa, there is State Rural Livelihood Mission - UPSRLM. | Availability of assets allows for collateral that can be used to obtain loans and credit that can be used to boost capital and start up new businesses and income generating activities. Middle-East J Sci Res 15(2):191–199. 07. In order for a rural population to strive there is need for livelihoods that would sustain and support their households and communities. Rural livelihood is a complex structure comprising of mostly agriculture, with part of the population diversifying into non-farm activities in order to attain a sustainable livelihood to get better income for their households 90% of the rural population is concentrated in villages with a population of less than 2000.Rural marketing is as old as the civilization. Young people are more energetic than older folks; hence the types of livelihoods that can be acquired by these two age groups will be different. Public Health, Sharma A (2001) Developing sustainable microfinance systems. Various initiatives in the recent past portrayed the significant role that the I.C.T plays in the realm of rural development. This cross-border travel is also another route of spreading infectious diseases . Diversification can be defined as activities undertaken by household members in order to improve their social status and standard of living (Ellis 1996). Illness disrupts a household in many ways, a sick individual will not be able to work, and this directly affects the flow of income. In rural areas this has led to diversification of livelihoods where people are moving away from farm activities and opting to migrate to areas where they can earn more money to sustain their households. Access and availability of irrigation facility: technology such as irrigation and availability of irrigation facilities to farmers can help boost the income of farmers and their households . The threat of disease outbreak in a disaster zone is also heightened by the presence of dead bodies that are often left out for days and start decomposing, poor sanitation, overcrowding and lack of basic amenities. It is common to see more than one livelihood group in a geographical area. Literacy opens channels that can help access credit and loans that can be used as start-up capital and or extra capital to advance a particular livelihood . The programme works to improve the livelihoods of farmers in the central corridor of Tanzania. Sustainable livelihoods are needed for economic growth and development of rural populations. Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for analysis Figure 2. For the very poor, microfinance schemes may seem out of their reach, because they have neither the resources nor collateral to obtain the loans (Buckley 1997; Littlefield et al. But there are also cases where a household may have less diversification, that is, only one or two income sources with a strong income base and well-established platforms and are achieving more from their livelihoods. This in turn fuels inequalities and vulnerable communities resort to livelihoods that are unsustainable, affecting the health and well-being of both men and women in different ways (Kim et al. Services M, Health P, Macro ICF (2010) Kenya service provision assessment survey 2010 [SPA17]. Subject 04. Natural capital includes land , water , air, living organisms and all ecosystems on the Earth that are necessary for human survival and well-being. In case of illness within the household, finances might be easily channelled from businesses to support the health expenditures, thereby affecting the business. This has also led to the development of local microfinance schemes based in social networks within the community. Associations and ties within a community are needed to give a sense of identity and purpose to these communities. Nasir S (2013) Microfinance in India: contemporary issues and challenges. 1463 Words6 Pages. Rural areas have low population densities and minimal infrastructure compared to cities and urban areas. This is further complicated by diseases that emerge after the natural disaster. The other aim is to ponder over the achievements and the failures of ICT in the sustainable development march. Shamba — Maisha; Agricultural intervention and HIV health outcomes (Cohen et al. Assets or possessions—this is what they own be it food, property, clothing, houses, livestock, stocks and all things that provide material and social income. Search for new pasture lands has resulted in domestic animals coming into close proximity with wild animals hence exposure to new diseases for the domestic animals. Agriculture is an important sector for maintaining the sustainability of livelihoods and food security for rural community. Boccia D, Hargreaves J, Lönnroth K, Jaramillo E, Weiss J, Uplekar M, Evans CA (2011) Cash transfer and microfinance interventions for tuberculosis control: review of the impact evidence and policy implications. | It defines the objectives of improving linkages by making marketing interventions. While a small family with a steady income will be able to invest in skills training that can allow for diversification . Since members decide on the conditions of repayment, the conditions are manageable. Ms. Carter This is because with more resources one is able to afford an education or training which can complement or augment their skills thereby widening their livelihood capabilities, which is not the case for those without resources. Diversification of livelihoods increases chances of economic growth and survival of a household. The two communities described above are exposed to two different environments and will likely be exposed to different animals and insects in their habitats. What influences emergence and re-emergence of diseases? The primary nurse in charge of the rural facility will also describe the scope of rural and remote nursing and also stress on nursing measures and interventions integrating the nursing concepts and theories and explaining the impact of environment of a person. Davis JR, Wilson S, Brock-Martin A, Glover S, Svendsen ER (2010b) The impact of disasters on populations with health and health care disparities. In order for a population to survive there is need for livelihoods that would sustain and support their households. Financial capital refers to any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth such as money, purchasable items, savings, credit , etc. The livelihood of the poor is gruelling as they find themselves in a state of poverty and lack basic necessities . Without their kind co-operation in all respect it would not been possible for me to prepare this assignment. Key words: livelihoods, activities, skills, households, regression, policy, Zambezi, Namibia. Chapter 1 outlines the background to urban - rural linkages: | Land is a source of food and income for the rural poor, lack of land therefore leads to lack of food and income hence hunger and malnutrition . Training/skill development: in order for a household to diversify, there is need for human capital . Rural poverty declined at 0.73% per yearover the period 1993-2005, down from0.81% in 1983-94.– 46% of rural children under five, 40% ofadult women and 38% of adult men areunderweight (compared to 33%, 25% and26% for urban).– 59% are small and marginal farmersand landless labourers who depend onagriculture. This knowledge can be attained through education , creativity, availability of skills and talents, experience, training and exposure. Human capital is an asset in diversification for rural livelihoods because the more the skills attained by a household the easier it is to diversify. PESTEL factors affecting rural market is entirely different compared to urban marketing. Page 02 02 02 03 03 04 05 06 08 09 10 10 11 12 13 15 15 16 17 People all over the United States decide on a daily basis on where they want to live. | In most remote parts of Papua New Guinea, there are few qualified health professional working and limited or no medical resources available to carter for the people. ...IN PRESS Due to the growing global population, people are moving into areas that were uninhabited in search for land for agriculture and for construction of homes, and for pasture lands to sustain their livestock. Lack of information can lead to households missing opportunities that could be beneficial for their skill development and market opportunities. Education and migration; where qualifications determine which field of work an individual can exploit . In most rural areas the schools are public and only go up to the eighth grade. 11. Ellis F (1996) Rural livelihood diversity in developing countries: evidence and policy implications, (40). Such artistic skills may not require an education at all, but if an individual is educated they are able to boost their talents, for example exploiting markets that would not be accessible to someone without an education. Education is extremely important when deciding to live in rural or urban areas. Livelihoods are determined by several factors which include (Ellis 2000; Fabusoro et al. 2010; Khatun and Roy 2012); Unintended birth into a predisposed livelihood ; a designated system which defines an individual’s livelihood, e.g. Not affiliated Moll HA (2005) Microfinance and rural development: a long-term perspective. MERS virus spread from the Middle East into South Korea, and the Ebola virus crossed borders from Guinea to Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Mali and Nigeria. Moreover, people of the same livelihood group share the same risks and kinds of vulnerability. About 40 million people living in the basin have been … By 2030, 60 percent of the world’s population are expected to be living in urban areas. 01. Social capital refers to relationships, institutions and norms that shape societal interactions. 07 September 2012 Retrieved from. Introduction The Rural Livelihood Development Programme (RLDP) is an initiative of the Government of Switzerland and supported through the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). International cross-border travel; there has been an increase in international cross-border travel for work, leisure and/or study. Population growth is not solely in larger metropolitan centres - the mega cities. J Infect 71:S97–S100. ; Liu, L.‐M. 2015). Although these are found to account for only part of the total income of rural small farm households, the diversified non-farm sector has gained in importance for rural When a rural household has diverse sources of income earning activities, its chances of survival financially are better than those of a household which has only one source (Ellis 1996). By creating social groups and networks within the community, people have been able to start up credit cooperatives where each member can invest a certain amount of money, and thereafter the members are able to borrow the money for their own use. The fight started between two drunken supporters outside the field and later emerged into the playing field. Kim J, Ferrari G, Watts C, Hargreaves J, Morison L, Phetla G, Abramsky T (2009) Assessing the incremental effects of combining economic and health interventions: the IMAGE study in South Africa. These include: Poor road network has resulted in certain communities being isolated (GIZ. Kondo T, Orbeta A, Dingcong C, Infantado C (2008) Impact of microfinance on rural households in the Philippines. The number of small and intermediate sized urban centres are also increasing and also have... ...Kellis Richardson